Quiet Eye theory & goaltending
Posted by Dean Holden at March 3rd, 2013
by Derek Panchuk, University of Calgary. Uploaded to YouTube on 23 July 2011
In a 2006 article in the journal of Human Movement Science (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17…), Derek Panchuk and Joan Vickers of the University of Calgary found a direct correlation between the intensity of eye contact with the puck before the shot and save percentage. This clip http://youtu.be/mPZCCpmRObw makes a nice comparison piece, and has some great footage of Columbus goalie Frederik Norrena putting theory into practise.
Gaze behaviors of goaltenders under spatial-temporal constraints.
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. email@example.com
It is still not known what underlies successful performance in goaltending. Some studies have reported that advanced cues from the shooter’s body (hip, kicking leg or support leg) are most important (Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, A. M., Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2002). Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 279-287; Savelsbergh, G. J. P., Williams, A. M., Van der Kamp, J., & Ward, P. (2005). Anticipation and visual search behaviour in expert soccer goalkeepers. Ergonomics, 48, 1686-1697; Williams, A. M., & Burwitz, L. (1993). Advanced cue utilization in soccer. In T. Reilly, J. Clarys, & A. Stibbe (Eds.), Science and football II (pp. 239-243). London, England: E&FN Spon), while others have found that the early tracking of the object prior to and during flight is most critical (Bard, C., & Fleury, M. (1981). Considering eye movement as a predictor of attainment. In: I. M. Cockerill, & W. M. MacGillvary (Eds.), Vision and Sport (pp. 28-41). Cheltenham, England: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.). These results are similar to those found in a number of interceptive timing studies (Land, M. F., & McLeod, P. (2000). From eye movements to actions: How batsmen hit the ball. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1340-1345; Ripoll and Fleurance, 1988; Vickers, J. N., & Adolphe, R. M. (1997). Gaze behaviour during a ball tracking and aiming skill. International Journal of Sports Vision, 4, 18-27). The coupled gaze and motor behavior of elite goaltenders were determined while responding to wrist shots taken from 5 m and 10 m on ice. The results showed that the goalies faced shots that were significantly different in phase durations due to distance (5 versus 10 m), but this was not a factor in making saves. Instead, the ability to stop the puck was dependent on the location, onset and duration of the final fixation/tracking gaze (or quiet eye) prior to initiating the saving action. The relative onset of quiet eye was significantly (p<.001) earlier (8.6%) and the duration was longer on saves (M=80.5%; 952.3 ms) compared to goals (onset 18.86%; M=70.1%, 826.1 ms). The quiet eye was located on the puck/stick during the preparation and execution of the shot in 70.53% of all trials, or on the ice in front of the release point of the puck (25.68%) and rarely on the body of the shooter (2.1%). The results are discussed within the context of current research on goaltending with specific emphasis on the timing of critical cues and the effect of tasks constraints.